Singapore

2017 Ramon Magsaysay Awards: Food from the heart: Singaporean feeds the poor, needy

In a first-world and wealthy country like Singapore, some 10 percent of the country’s population of 5.7 million live in poverty and Tony was one of them.

by · Friday, 1 September 2017 · Philippines, Singapore

Learning from our global benchmarking reports: A day in Singapore

Global benchmarking reports are great conversation starters. Here in Singapore, a nation defined by its drive for excellence, these benchmarking reports are held as evidence of the country’s development success.  From topping the global education index PISA, the Global Competitiveness Index, and the Leading Maritime Capitals of the World Report, Singapore takes great pride in being first, in Asia if not globally.  
 
An important global ranking for Singapore is the Doing Business survey, a ranking the island nation topped for many years, indicating the ease with which business can be done in the little red dot.

Global benchmarking surveys are powerful tools to engage in a policy dialogue. However, given that they are global in nature, there are a set of assumptions and limitations in methodology which are partly determined by the huge variations in data availability across countries. Methodologies of these surveys are continually updated to reflect nuances in context that may lead to a different but more comprehensive set of analysis and conclusions.
 
One of our priorities here at the World Bank Group is to continue our dialogue with all our stakeholders, to see what we are getting right in these surveys and how we can do better.  We have a particularly unique opportunity in Singapore, where both government agencies and the private sector work hard to stay on top. Singapore is anything but complacent, and that makes for a rich discussion about how our surveys may be improved.
 
Indeed, a recent visit to Singapore by Augusto Lopez Claros, who led the Doing Business report team, enabled us to discuss in-depth the findings and methodology of the report with a wide variety of stakeholders – and all within a 24-hour window. The conversations were instructive, and keep us in tuned with our audience and how our work helps theirs.
 
We identified five different audiences for the one-day visit – an ambitious number in any context. Our first interaction was with our main counterpart: the government. A meeting hosted by the Ministry of Trade & Industry gathered all the relevant agencies that deal with the 11 Doing Business indicators. Some officials sought feedback on a number of very relevant questions on methodology and approach; for example, differentiating countries versus regional blocs for the Trading Across Borders indicator. These questions reflect the forward looking thinking of the concerned government agencies, and provides us with a different perspective to the indicators.
 
Following the meeting with the government, we moved on to one hosted by the Singapore Business Federation, the country’s leading private sector association, which again attracted an impressive list of participants. Some of the world’s leading firms mobilize their operations across Asia from Singapore. These firms refer to the Doing Business report quite extensively in the context of exploring investment locations. There was a great deal of interest in understanding better how these indicators are put together.
 
We also met with academic community – professors, students, and development partners at the public lecture hosted by the National University of Singapore (NUS). The questions posed at this were more broad, and a great reminder of the public’s great interest in the cutting edge research at the Bank and its role in shaping policies for economic development. Students from developing countries posed some particularly thought-provoking questions, on how high rankings on global benchmark reports may not necessarily reflect shared prosperity in a country.
 
We also hosted a virtual but very engaging discussion of the DB report with our clients – through video conference – with government clients joining us from across the East Asia and South Asia region, including Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Brunei, Thailand, and the Philippines. This was a virtual peer to peer learning event, and particularly helpful in enabling our counterparts to learn from the issues other countries are dealing with. Apart from the methodology related issues, we were also able to share some of the lessons from Singapore’s own DB reform experience. The Singapore Hub serves well as a laboratory for connecting a range of good practices to our clients across Asia.
 
Lastly, we also hosted a discussion on the Women Business and the Law report, with the Women CEO’s network in Singapore. We were heartened to see the impressive turnout:  27 participants from the private sector and also government, including the Senior Minister for Law and Finance, and the Deputy CEO of IE Singapore, the country’s investment promotion agency.  Triggering an animated discussion on the issue of women’s legal rights in Singapore as well as in other regions, and on the impact on female labor participation in those countries undertaking reforms, the meeting was another opportunity for the World Bank to learn how our research is influencing the shaping of policy.
 
So, in a span of 24 hours, we were able to gather important suggestions from our intended audience: policy-makers from across the region, businesses and entrepreneurs, scholars and academics. Not often do we have such a rich opportunity to receive – and respond to – feedback from so many parties.
 
Majulah Singapura – Onward Singapore!

Transit-oriented development and the case of the Marina Bay area in Singapore

Transit-oriented development and the case of the Marina Bay area in Singapore


What do you love about the city you live in?
 
Your answer may be a combination of the following: ease of travel and access to many jobs using high quality and low cost public transit; livability as measured by the availability of green or community space such as parks, schools, cultural or shopping centers; ease of walking and biking encouraging active living and an engaging community; and an idea of what the city would look like ten years from now.

Neighborhoods differ and complement each other to form a city. Such diversity is what makes a city fascinating, as well as complex to plan.  Preserving such diversity is particularly relevant when applying Transit-Oriented Development, or TOD, principles, a form of high density development within walking distance of mass transit stations. 
 
A growing number of developing cities are adopting such TOD principles, but are still exploring how to develop different type of communities around stations.  A framework, outlined in a new World Bank report called Transforming the Urban Space through Transit-Oriented Development: the 3V Approach, suggests that this can be done by looking at 3 values.
 
The 3 values are: ‘node’ value, as defined by the level of access offered by a mass transit station; ‘place value’, or the attractiveness of the area in terms of diversity and accessibility of community spaces; and ‘market potential’ value, or the prospects of the community in the future.
 
And in a successful scenario, the three values reinforce each other in a positive ‘feedback loop’.

For us working here in Singapore, this positive ‘feedback loop’ is evident, as the city has been planned for decades along principles of integrated land use and transport planning similar to the 3V framework. Our office is situated in an area that symbolizes a peak for all three values; that is, the Marina Bay area.
 
Singapore is a small island state that can be traversed through within one work day. But in its development planning, which looks at future prospects in magnitudes of decades rather than years, space is a constraint requiring specific attention. Marina Bay is adjacent to the city’s historical financial center and stands on 360 hectares of reclaimed land built up in the 1980s. When fully developed, the area is expected to more than double the office space for the city, to 4.8 million square meters.
 
But Marina Bay is already more than just a site of new offices. By next year, Marina Bay is expected to be served by four mass transit lines and nine metro stations, and all locations in the area will be within a five-minute walk of a public transport facility.  Not all transport ‘nodes’ in a network are equal, and successful ‘nodes’ connect many routes and transport more passengers. Once fully developed, the ‘node’ value of Marina Bay will be very high.
 
And this ‘node’ value is reinforced by the abundant availability of pedestrian walkways – many of them covered but still outdoors – and cycling paths in the area.  On any given evening in Marina Bay, the broad sidewalks and pedestrian overpasses are full of people strolling, jogging, dancing, and otherwise enjoying the community space.
 


Indeed, an appreciation of community rather than transport is what partly defines successful Transit-Oriented Development, and gives an area high ‘place’ value.
 
In Marina Bay, this means blocks that are of manageable size, with many underground walkways between the buildings. The area also operates under a flexible framework, so that land parcels can be combined or subdivided as needed. And adjacent to the office towers are parks and gardens that serve as a reprieve from urban bustle, a tourist attraction, as well as a recycling tool – the ‘supertrees’ in nature park Gardens by the Bay vent hot air and circulate cool water.
 
As a result of this mix of attractions, of high ‘node’ value and ‘place’ value, Marina Bay’s market value has grown immense.


The government’s investment in the area has been recouped, with both local and international developers investing billions of dollars into the area. Leading global companies now have their regional headquarters in the area.  Although there is a very high density of jobs, there is barely any congestion, since the area is easily accessible by mass transit from virtually anywhere on the island. Developers are also attracted by the flexibility built into the zoning regulations.
 
Marina Bay showcases the potential of a positive feedback loop between the 3 ‘V’s, by creating a well-connected, high quality space, supporting a vibrant community.  It joins other examples of major urban transformation – also presented in the report – such as Hudson Yards in New York, King’s Cross in London, as well as mid-scale developments like Hammerby Sjöstad of Stockhom or the Bo01 district of Malmö, both in Sweden. These neighborhoods show that maximizing the potential of Transit-Oriented Development – and creating beloved neighborhoods that thrive – is possible.

by · Tuesday, 16 May 2017 · Singapore
Learning for all: shared principles for equitable and excellent basic education systems

Learning for all: shared principles for equitable and excellent basic education systems

More than 200 participants – including government officials, policymakers and education experts from over 20 countries gathered in Jakarta, Indonesia, for the global conference Learning for All: Shared Principles for Equitable and Excellent Basic Education Systems.

The conference addressed themes related to improving learning outcomes for all students, including how to support effective teaching and early childhood development, balancing school autonomy and accountability, and how education systems can build the skills needed for the 21st century.   
 

For the host country, Indonesia, the forum provided a valuable chance to look more closely at issues facing its education system.

While Indonesia has made considerable progress on access and education funding (with a commitment to allocate 20% of its budget to education), it faces critical challenges including efficiently using resources in a highly decentralized context, investing in early childhood, and needing to boost teacher quality along with learning outcomes.

Senior officials from Indonesia’s government ministries shared insights into Indonesia’s current reforms including teacher policies, school operating grants, conditional cash transfer programs, and early childhood development strategies.

From the experiences shared as well as research presented, participants were able to draw many relevant lessons to help strengthen their education systems. An overview of education performance in the region from the World Bank’s forthcoming regional Education Flagship Report showed that EAP countries are among the top performers on PISA, and that they have invested heavily in creating excellent education systems. Among these lessons, the conference revealed that high performing systems:

  • carefully select, groom and value their teachers by attracting high performing students into the teaching profession and providing relevant pre-service and in-service training in pedagogy and subject content;
  • create a structure and culture that promotes collaboration between teachers;
  • strategically use targeted measurements to promote accountability and drive reform;
  • invest early in children’s development;
  • view schools and parents as partners in education;
  • and are innovating to connect with industry, in order to link education systems to employment.

Former and current ministry officials also shared relevant lessons from middle income countries including Peru – which embarked on ambitious system-wide changes to promote equity and quality after placing last on PISA in 2012—and Mexico, which has developed a program to give teachers tools to build the socioemotional skills of adolescents in school. These countries face many of the same challenges as Indonesia and other countries in the region and offered important practical lessons and strategies for participants. Harry Anthony Patrinos, Education Manager, World Bank also shared examples from five reforms across the globe.  

The role of measuring education systems was a key topic of discussion as well. Australia shared a critical framework for balancing autonomy and accountability using clearly defined and targeted measures that are transparent and fair.

Andreas Schleicher, Director for Education and Skills and Special Advisor on Education Policy to the Secretary-General at the OECD presented an in-depth look at the latest PISA 2015 data. The analysis revealed a range of trends linked to education outcomes and areas with high impact on outcomes including commitment to universal achievement, resource provision where it matters most, and use of incentive structures and accountability systems that work.  

At the same time, a key message emerged from the countries and policymakers present: PISA is not about rankings—success on PISA means learning from PISA. PISA itself is evolving to capture broader aspects beyond math, science and reading (such as well-being and collaborative problem-solving).  These skills are ever more important as trends such as technology and automation continue to shape the labor market of the 21st century. High performing countries such as Singapore are looking to expand their education systems beyond cognitive skills to promote student well-being.

Citing the value of having achievement data to support education reform, India shared its roadmap to strengthen learning outcomes, and its intention to re-join PISA in 2021. A discussion theme, highlighted by India and others throughout the three days, was how many countries have been using IT to innovatively address gaps, such as through computer based testing, capturing and analyzing data, and creating portals to facilitate information sharing.

Participants noted that the conference helped them identify education priorities and policy change opportunities in their own countries, for example Vietnam highlighted that there is still much work to do in the country to link graduates with jobs, and its intention to use data to diagnose its system.   

A follow up conference is tentatively planned for 2018.
 

by · Wednesday, 3 May 2017 · Australia, India, Indonesia, Singapore, Vietnam
Thailand steps up reforms to make doing business easier

Thailand steps up reforms to make doing business easier

A Thai business owner in Chiang Mai might open a small resort serving local people as well as tourists. It would probably take him about two months to set up his business after finding the location, staff and getting the company registered. He would find it reasonably easy to start his business.    

At the same time, a foreign investor living in Vietnam and considering whether to invest 3 million baht in Thailand to start a restaurant might have a different experience. She would likely find the process a bit complex and challenging. Most websites with the relevant information are written in Thai, the paperwork involved in registering a company can be pretty daunting for foreigners, and getting work permits and a business license can take longer than expected.

Thailand’s business environment plays a pivotal role in attracting private investment, both Thai and foreign, and these experiences could be reflective of many people’s sentiments in trying to set up a business here. 

A strong business-friendly environment makes it easy for people to invest, start and run a business, and improves the competitive position of Thai businesses in global markets. It also benefits people. Small business owners, who create most jobs and are responsible for the well-being of many families in Thailand, gain. Consumers who can buy better goods and use services offered from more businesses gain as well as a strong business environment means faster, better, and cheaper services for people living in Thailand. 

Thailand still has a good business environment by global comparisons, as measured by the World Bank Doing Business report, which measures the ease of doing business in 190 economies globally. Last year, Thailand ranked 46, retaining a spot among the top 50 economies for ease of doing business.

However, Thailand’s score has remained broadly flat in recent years while other advanced middle-income countries have been catching up or pulling ahead. Singapore has been in the number 1 and number 2 spot for many years. Improving the business environment further and attracting more investments will be critical for Thailand to increase its integration into regional and global value chains, become an economic powerhouse in the ASEAN region, and realize its vision to become a high-income economy.
 
Measures to ease starting a new business, accessing credit for small and medium enterprises (SMEs) to facilitating trade all go a long way to realizing the objectives laid out by the government.  Recent critical reforms include an update of the Customs Act to international standards, which could shorten the time for clearance audits and investigations, as well as the introduction of an electronic ID system that would replace the need to present physical state certified copies to access public services, a significant simplification of bureaucratic requirements.
 
Thailand has undertaken key reforms aimed at simplifying starting a business and paying taxes. In 2016, Thailand introduced reforms that made business registration simpler by creating a single window for registering payments and started to provide credit scores to banks and financial institutions. It has made importing and exporting easier by introducing electronic submission of customs declarations.  Further trade related reforms will be an important priority, especially as Thailand seeks to increase foreign investment in the country. 
 
Thailand has now made further improvements in the business environment a top policy priority.
 
The Office of the Prime Minister and Ministry of Finance led the reform effort, under the leadership of Deputy Prime Minister Somkid Jatusripitak. They asked the Office of Public Sector Development Commission (OPDC) to serve as the coordinating body for all business environment reform efforts.  The World Bank Group is pleased to support this important reform initiative and contribute to Thailand’s efforts to strengthen the business environment.
 
Work of the government’s Doing Business task force has focused, with World Bank Group support, on identifying key reforms to strengthen the business environment across ten areas: starting a business, dealing with construction permits, getting electricity, registering property, getting credit, protecting minority investors, paying taxes, trading across borders, enforcing contracts, and resolving insolvency. Most of the key reforms focus in particular on how to ease business entry and operation for SMEs, by reducing complexity, cost of regulatory processes, increasing transparency securing property rights, and increasing access to credit. Some of these reforms have already been introduced in the past month.
 
Reform actions range from short term measures that would include greater clarity in specific acts like the Business Security Act to help SMEs access funds to longer term measures such as completing the full implementation of the Thai National Single Window system for all agencies and categories of goods to achieve a fully paperless process for the clearance on import, export and transit goods.
 
Continuing these reforms to promote a better business environment are key for Thailand to realize its 20 year strategy and Thailand 4.0. They will not guarantee success, but they will help. In addition, implementing public infrastructure investments, developing skilled workers through quality education, and promoting innovations, will all be critical to improve the country’s competitiveness.  
 
As Thailand makes it even easier to do business, Thai and foreign entrepreneurs alike – from a small Thai business owner to a foreigner living in Vietnam – will find Thailand an attractive place to invest. They will be able to bring capital, create more and better jobs, and help the Thai economy grow faster, resulting in higher incomes for more people to improve their families’ well-being and lives.    
 
A version of this blog appeared in the Bangkok Post and Krungthep Turakij.

by · Wednesday, 26 April 2017 · Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam
Thailand steps up reforms to make doing business easier

Thailand steps up reforms to make doing business easier

A Thai business owner in Chiang Mai might open a small resort serving local people as well as tourists. It would probably take him about two months to set up his business after finding the location, staff and getting the company registered. He would find it reasonably easy to start his business.    

At the same time, a foreign investor living in Vietnam and considering whether to invest 3 million baht in Thailand to start a restaurant might have a different experience. She would likely find the process a bit complex and challenging. Most websites with the relevant information are written in Thai, the paperwork involved in registering a company can be pretty daunting for foreigners, and getting work permits and a business license can take longer than expected.

Thailand’s business environment plays a pivotal role in attracting private investment, both Thai and foreign, and these experiences could be reflective of many people’s sentiments in trying to set up a business here. 

A strong business-friendly environment makes it easy for people to invest, start and run a business, and improves the competitive position of Thai businesses in global markets. It also benefits people. Small business owners, who create most jobs and are responsible for the well-being of many families in Thailand, gain. Consumers who can buy better goods and use services offered from more businesses gain as well as a strong business environment means faster, better, and cheaper services for people living in Thailand. 

Thailand still has a good business environment by global comparisons, as measured by the World Bank Doing Business report, which measures the ease of doing business in 190 economies globally. Last year, Thailand ranked 46, retaining a spot among the top 50 economies for ease of doing business.

However, Thailand’s score has remained broadly flat in recent years while other advanced middle-income countries have been catching up or pulling ahead. Singapore has been in the number 1 and number 2 spot for many years. Improving the business environment further and attracting more investments will be critical for Thailand to increase its integration into regional and global value chains, become an economic powerhouse in the ASEAN region, and realize its vision to become a high-income economy.
 
Measures to ease starting a new business, accessing credit for small and medium enterprises (SMEs) to facilitating trade all go a long way to realizing the objectives laid out by the government.  Recent critical reforms include an update of the Customs Act to international standards, which could shorten the time for clearance audits and investigations, as well as the introduction of an electronic ID system that would replace the need to present physical state certified copies to access public services, a significant simplification of bureaucratic requirements.
 
Thailand has undertaken key reforms aimed at simplifying starting a business and paying taxes. In 2016, Thailand introduced reforms that made business registration simpler by creating a single window for registering payments and started to provide credit scores to banks and financial institutions. It has made importing and exporting easier by introducing electronic submission of customs declarations.  Further trade related reforms will be an important priority, especially as Thailand seeks to increase foreign investment in the country. 
 
Thailand has now made further improvements in the business environment a top policy priority.
 
The Office of the Prime Minister and Ministry of Finance led the reform effort, under the leadership of Deputy Prime Minister Somkid Jatusripitak. They asked the Office of Public Sector Development Commission (OPDC) to serve as the coordinating body for all business environment reform efforts.  The World Bank Group is pleased to support this important reform initiative and contribute to Thailand’s efforts to strengthen the business environment.
 
Work of the government’s Doing Business task force has focused, with World Bank Group support, on identifying key reforms to strengthen the business environment across ten areas: starting a business, dealing with construction permits, getting electricity, registering property, getting credit, protecting minority investors, paying taxes, trading across borders, enforcing contracts, and resolving insolvency. Most of the key reforms focus in particular on how to ease business entry and operation for SMEs, by reducing complexity, cost of regulatory processes, increasing transparency securing property rights, and increasing access to credit. Some of these reforms have already been introduced in the past month.
 
Reform actions range from short term measures that would include greater clarity in specific acts like the Business Security Act to help SMEs access funds to longer term measures such as completing the full implementation of the Thai National Single Window system for all agencies and categories of goods to achieve a fully paperless process for the clearance on import, export and transit goods.
 
Continuing these reforms to promote a better business environment are key for Thailand to realize its 20 year strategy and Thailand 4.0. They will not guarantee success, but they will help. In addition, implementing public infrastructure investments, developing skilled workers through quality education, and promoting innovations, will all be critical to improve the country’s competitiveness.  
 
As Thailand makes it even easier to do business, Thai and foreign entrepreneurs alike – from a small Thai business owner to a foreigner living in Vietnam – will find Thailand an attractive place to invest. They will be able to bring capital, create more and better jobs, and help the Thai economy grow faster, resulting in higher incomes for more people to improve their families’ well-being and lives.    
 
A version of this blog appeared in the Bangkok Post and Krungthep Turakij.

by · Wednesday, 26 April 2017 · Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam
Providing quality education to one million students in Thailand’s small schools

Providing quality education to one million students in Thailand’s small schools

The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development’s latest Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) results brought several pieces of alarming news for Thailand.
 
First, Thailand’s ranking slipped further (from 51st to 64th in reading; 50th to 55th in Mathematics; and 50th to 54th in Science).
 
Second, the education system produces a disturbingly small share of “high performers” – only 1.4 percent of Thai students demonstrated superior problem solving and analytical reasoning skills compared to 35 percent of students in Singapore, and 15 percent, on average, in the OECD.
 
Third, the share of functional illiterate students rose further: from 33 percent in 2012 to 50 percent in 2015.
 
But behind these headline figures is a trend we should be more aware of – students in Thailand’s smallest schools are falling further behind their peers in larger schools. This movement was already taking place between 2003 and 2012 – highlighted in the World Bank’s “Wanted: a Quality Education for All” report – but the trend continued between 2012 and 2015.
 
This year, nearly one million children are attending small mostly rural schools in Thailand. Many of them are from Thailand’s poorest families, and the quality of education they are receiving is not preparing them for modern work life.
 
Thailand can do so much more to prepare its children for a competitive workforce. For Thailand’s economy to regain its competitive edge, more children will need to be equipped with stronger problem solving, analytical reasoning and English language skills. For Thailand to revive growth and become more equal, the children of its poorest citizens need a fairer chance in life, including an opportunity to receive the same type quality education as is provided in Bangkok.
 
Why are children in these schools falling further behind? Our research suggests there are two primary reasons.
 
First, poor and inadequate provision of quality early child development centers in rural areas means that too many rural students do not receive proper care and cognitive stimulation to ensure that they are ready for school by the age of six. Such care and stimulation is especially important for children coming from socio-economically poor backgrounds where they may not get this support at home.
 
Second, Thailand’s small schools struggle to attract and retain quality teachers. In short, these schools have chronic teacher shortages and too many of the teachers they do attract are not of the caliber seen in Thailand’s best schools. As an example, 20 percent of teachers in Bangkok have a graduate degree compared with only 9 percent in the poor province of Mae Hong Son.  
 
How can Thailand ensure that children from poor families also get a quality education?
 
First, supporting all children to be ready for school by the age of 6 is key. Doing so involves expanding access to quality early childhood development services, especially in rural areas. Thai parents care deeply for their children, as parents do around the world.  They will do whatever they can to foster their children’s development.  The government can support them with programs and outreach campaigns in areas such as breastfeeding, nutrition and health protection, and child learning and development. Moreover, many early child development centers in rural areas can benefit from more and better trained professionals.
 
Second, Thailand faces a unique challenge of a growing number of small schools.  Indeed, Thailand has far more schools than its current and projected student numbers, which have shrunk from nearly 9.5 million in 1997 to around 7.4 million today, and are projected to drop further to 5.5 million over the coming two decades. Yet, the number of schools have remained largely unchanged during the past few decades.
 
The rising number of small schools is at the heart of Thailand’s teacher shortage problem. Thailand does not have a shortage of teachers, the problem is getting the teachers deployed in small schools.
 
How can good teachers and a good education reach all Thai children? The Office of Basic Education’s decision to consolidate small and poorly resourced schools with nearby larger schools is a good approach if communities can also lead the decision-making process. Despite the disruptions of closing some schools and building up others, consolidating Thailand’s school system from approximately 30,000 to 15,800 schools could offer one of the best opportunities to heighten the learning opportunities for Thailand’s most disadvantaged children. 
 
As the Education Ministry works towards its 20-year Strategic Education Plan of reducing disparities between urban-rural schools and bringing Thailand’s educational standards to the same level as developed countries, we realize that there are no silver bullets to fix a faltering education system. However, good policies and careful implementation of those policies lie at the heart of the strong performance by students in Singapore, South Korea and Vietnam.
 
To ensure that Thailand has the workforce it needs for Thailand 4.0, it is time to get to work on strengthening early childhood care, and – through school consolidating – ensuring that every child attends a well-equipped school with a quality teaching force.
 
A version of this blog appeared in Krungthep Turakij.

by · Thursday, 23 February 2017 · Korea, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam
世界上哪个地区的孩子最聪明?经合组织数据显示,该地区为东亚地区

世界上哪个地区的孩子最聪明?经合组织数据显示,该地区为东亚地区

图中为越南芹苴市附近Tran Dai Nghia高中的学生(图片来源:D7K_4030,摄影:makzhou,按照知识共享组织CC BY-NC 4.0规则使用/已对原照片进行裁剪)


经合组织上月发布的国际学生评估项目(PISA)最新调查结果表明,全世界学习成绩最好的学生中,很多都来自东亚地区。
 
正如在最近发布的《国际数学于科学趋势研究报告》TIMSS )的结果表明,新加坡学生在国际学生评估项目每一学科的成绩均在世界上名列前茅,以较大优势领先于其他经济体和国家。新加坡学生在科学、数学和阅读三门学科上的成绩水平,要比同地区和经合组织国家的学生成绩水平高出两个学年。另外,几乎所有的新加坡学生都达到了基本熟练水平或更高水平。同时,他们的成绩越来越好,成绩低于基本熟练水平的学生人数因此而显著减少。
 
日本学生在科学、数学和阅读学科上的成绩,也明显高于大多数参与该项目的经济体。不过,与上一轮评估相比,日本学生在阅读方面的分数有所下降。尽管如此,与新加坡一样,日本90%的学生已经达到了基本熟练水平或更高水平。

国际学生评估项目是于2000年发起的一项国际调查项目,每三年展开一次调查,其宗旨是在测试15岁学生技能和知识水平基础上对世界各国教育系统进行评估。2015年,该项目对72个国家和经济体超过50万名学生在科学、数学和阅读等三方面进行了评估。
 
总体而言,东亚经济体的表现突出,在前10名中占据7席。

 
在“科学”这一学科上,不但高收入的东亚国家(如新加坡韩国日本、香港特区、中国)占据领先地位,越南也首次进入前10名之列。对于一个低收入国家能够取得这一结果,的确令人赞叹。越南学生的成绩继续明显高于其收入组别的平均水平,并高于很多高收入国家。其在“科学”的得分水平大约高于经合组织和本地区平均水平一学年左右。
 

2015年之前,上海是唯一代表中国参加国际学生评估项目的城市,它的成绩即代表了整个中国学生的成绩水平。我们在之前对此已进行过充分记载。今年有四个省市参加了国际学生评估项目,它们分别为北京、上海、江苏和广东。这些学生的成绩也明显高于经合组织各参与经济体的平均水平。
 
但也存在挑战
 
但是,其他东亚国家的表现却有些差强人意。 印度尼西亚马来西亚泰国也参加了2015年的国际学生评估项目,但这三个国家学生的成绩均低于按其国家收入而预期设定的水平。与本地区和经合组织平均值相比,学生们每个学科科目的成绩继续滞后2至3年。大约50%的学生低于基本熟练水平,这使得他们在接触第二十一世纪技能时,几乎属于功能性文盲,尽管他们已经完成九年的小学和高中学业。
 
在泰国,在科学和阅读学科上的成绩大幅下滑,数学成绩则略有下滑。尽管印度尼西亚在测试分数上已经取得显著提高——科学测试的成绩水平升高了约0.7个学年;在阅读方面,印度尼西亚在2000年至2015年间提高了26分(从371至397分),但其整体成绩水平仍远远落后于经合组织和本地区的平均水平。
 
成功经验
 
东亚各国的成功并非奇迹,也无秘密可言。成功归因于勤勉的付出和良好的政策。
 
正如多年前韩国所做的那样,取得好成绩的东亚各国都做好了基础工作,它们从对基础教育进行精明投资入手,之后推广有效的早期阅读课程。对私营部门服务或资金和公共资金的经济有效使用,能够帮助弥补所存在的差距。在建立和完善基础教育体系的同时,东亚各国对于高等教育采用创新性的资金扶持计划,例如按收入比例还款型学生贷款计划,即学生可通过其未来收入筹集学费和其他费用。得益于学校同行业和用人单位建立的紧密联系,面向小学毕业后学生的技能培训项目得以顺利实施。此外,上述各国也很好地利用了发展机构的贷款。
 
越南的成功得益于下述几个因素。该国除了重视国家预算对教育的投入之外,家长也会通过经常帮助学校或向学校募捐等方式,更多地参与到孩子的学习生活当中。教师的教学工作得到更多的监督,与其他发展中国家相比,越南更加重视学生的成绩。学生也因此更加专注和认真对待其学业。他们较少担心数学,并且对将来如何应用数学知识更有信心。
 
越南也做好了基础工作。该国已从对学校和教师素质的早期投资中获益。学校的最低质量标准以及学科知识、技能和行为标准得以实施。教师均具有很高的职业水平。该国强调识字和识数能力标准化评估的重要性。这些举措所获得的优势很早就开始显现:研究表明,五岁以下越南儿童的表现已略优于其他发展中国家的同龄儿童。
 
应当先从这一地区吸取成功经验。我们将通过区域研究和在3月在印度尼西亚召开的会议上总结上述经验。
 
请可通过Twitter@hpatrinos关注Harry Anthony Patrinos

by · Friday, 10 February 2017 · China, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam
世界上哪个地区的孩子最聪明?经合组织数据显示,该地区为东亚地区

世界上哪个地区的孩子最聪明?经合组织数据显示,该地区为东亚地区

图中为越南芹苴市附近Tran Dai Nghia高中的学生(图片来源:D7K_4030,摄影:makzhou,按照知识共享组织CC BY-NC 4.0规则使用/已对原照片进行裁剪)


经合组织上月发布的国际学生评估项目(PISA)最新调查结果表明,全世界学习成绩最好的学生中,很多都来自东亚地区。
 
正如在最近发布的《国际数学于科学趋势研究报告》TIMSS )的结果表明,新加坡学生在国际学生评估项目每一学科的成绩均在世界上名列前茅,以较大优势领先于其他经济体和国家。新加坡学生在科学、数学和阅读三门学科上的成绩水平,要比同地区和经合组织国家的学生成绩水平高出两个学年。另外,几乎所有的新加坡学生都达到了基本熟练水平或更高水平。同时,他们的成绩越来越好,成绩低于基本熟练水平的学生人数因此而显著减少。
 
日本学生在科学、数学和阅读学科上的成绩,也明显高于大多数参与该项目的经济体。不过,与上一轮评估相比,日本学生在阅读方面的分数有所下降。尽管如此,与新加坡一样,日本90%的学生已经达到了基本熟练水平或更高水平。

国际学生评估项目是于2000年发起的一项国际调查项目,每三年展开一次调查,其宗旨是在测试15岁学生技能和知识水平基础上对世界各国教育系统进行评估。2015年,该项目对72个国家和经济体超过50万名学生在科学、数学和阅读等三方面进行了评估。
 
总体而言,东亚经济体的表现突出,在前10名中占据7席。

 
在“科学”这一学科上,不但高收入的东亚国家(如新加坡韩国日本、香港特区、中国)占据领先地位,越南也首次进入前10名之列。对于一个低收入国家能够取得这一结果,的确令人赞叹。越南学生的成绩继续明显高于其收入组别的平均水平,并高于很多高收入国家。其在“科学”的得分水平大约高于经合组织和本地区平均水平一学年左右。
 

2015年之前,上海是唯一代表中国参加国际学生评估项目的城市,它的成绩即代表了整个中国学生的成绩水平。我们在之前对此已进行过充分记载。今年有四个省市参加了国际学生评估项目,它们分别为北京、上海、江苏和广东。这些学生的成绩也明显高于经合组织各参与经济体的平均水平。
 
但也存在挑战
 
但是,其他东亚国家的表现却有些差强人意。 印度尼西亚马来西亚泰国也参加了2015年的国际学生评估项目,但这三个国家学生的成绩均低于按其国家收入而预期设定的水平。与本地区和经合组织平均值相比,学生们每个学科科目的成绩继续滞后2至3年。大约50%的学生低于基本熟练水平,这使得他们在接触第二十一世纪技能时,几乎属于功能性文盲,尽管他们已经完成九年的小学和高中学业。
 
在泰国,在科学和阅读学科上的成绩大幅下滑,数学成绩则略有下滑。尽管印度尼西亚在测试分数上已经取得显著提高——科学测试的成绩水平升高了约0.7个学年;在阅读方面,印度尼西亚在2000年至2015年间提高了26分(从371至397分),但其整体成绩水平仍远远落后于经合组织和本地区的平均水平。
 
成功经验
 
东亚各国的成功并非奇迹,也无秘密可言。成功归因于勤勉的付出和良好的政策。
 
正如多年前韩国所做的那样,取得好成绩的东亚各国都做好了基础工作,它们从对基础教育进行精明投资入手,之后推广有效的早期阅读课程。对私营部门服务或资金和公共资金的经济有效使用,能够帮助弥补所存在的差距。在建立和完善基础教育体系的同时,东亚各国对于高等教育采用创新性的资金扶持计划,例如按收入比例还款型学生贷款计划,即学生可通过其未来收入筹集学费和其他费用。得益于学校同行业和用人单位建立的紧密联系,面向小学毕业后学生的技能培训项目得以顺利实施。此外,上述各国也很好地利用了发展机构的贷款。
 
越南的成功得益于下述几个因素。该国除了重视国家预算对教育的投入之外,家长也会通过经常帮助学校或向学校募捐等方式,更多地参与到孩子的学习生活当中。教师的教学工作得到更多的监督,与其他发展中国家相比,越南更加重视学生的成绩。学生也因此更加专注和认真对待其学业。他们较少担心数学,并且对将来如何应用数学知识更有信心。
 
越南也做好了基础工作。该国已从对学校和教师素质的早期投资中获益。学校的最低质量标准以及学科知识、技能和行为标准得以实施。教师均具有很高的职业水平。该国强调识字和识数能力标准化评估的重要性。这些举措所获得的优势很早就开始显现:研究表明,五岁以下越南儿童的表现已略优于其他发展中国家的同龄儿童。
 
应当先从这一地区吸取成功经验。我们将通过区域研究和在3月在印度尼西亚召开的会议上总结上述经验。
 
请可通过Twitter@hpatrinos关注Harry Anthony Patrinos

by · Friday, 10 February 2017 · China, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam
世界上哪个地区的孩子最聪明?经合组织数据显示,该地区为东亚地区

世界上哪个地区的孩子最聪明?经合组织数据显示,该地区为东亚地区

图中为越南芹苴市附近Tran Dai Nghia高中的学生(图片来源:D7K_4030,摄影:makzhou,按照知识共享组织CC BY-NC 4.0规则使用/已对原照片进行裁剪)


经合组织上月发布的国际学生评估项目(PISA)最新调查结果表明,全世界学习成绩最好的学生中,很多都来自东亚地区。
 
正如在最近发布的《国际数学于科学趋势研究报告》TIMSS )的结果表明,新加坡学生在国际学生评估项目每一学科的成绩均在世界上名列前茅,以较大优势领先于其他经济体和国家。新加坡学生在科学、数学和阅读三门学科上的成绩水平,要比同地区和经合组织国家的学生成绩水平高出两个学年。另外,几乎所有的新加坡学生都达到了基本熟练水平或更高水平。同时,他们的成绩越来越好,成绩低于基本熟练水平的学生人数因此而显著减少。
 
日本学生在科学、数学和阅读学科上的成绩,也明显高于大多数参与该项目的经济体。不过,与上一轮评估相比,日本学生在阅读方面的分数有所下降。尽管如此,与新加坡一样,日本90%的学生已经达到了基本熟练水平或更高水平。

国际学生评估项目是于2000年发起的一项国际调查项目,每三年展开一次调查,其宗旨是在测试15岁学生技能和知识水平基础上对世界各国教育系统进行评估。2015年,该项目对72个国家和经济体超过50万名学生在科学、数学和阅读等三方面进行了评估。
 
总体而言,东亚经济体的表现突出,在前10名中占据7席。

 
在“科学”这一学科上,不但高收入的东亚国家(如新加坡韩国日本、香港特区、中国)占据领先地位,越南也首次进入前10名之列。对于一个低收入国家能够取得这一结果,的确令人赞叹。越南学生的成绩继续明显高于其收入组别的平均水平,并高于很多高收入国家。其在“科学”的得分水平大约高于经合组织和本地区平均水平一学年左右。
 

2015年之前,上海是唯一代表中国参加国际学生评估项目的城市,它的成绩即代表了整个中国学生的成绩水平。我们在之前对此已进行过充分记载。今年有四个省市参加了国际学生评估项目,它们分别为北京、上海、江苏和广东。这些学生的成绩也明显高于经合组织各参与经济体的平均水平。
 
但也存在挑战
 
但是,其他东亚国家的表现却有些差强人意。 印度尼西亚马来西亚泰国也参加了2015年的国际学生评估项目,但这三个国家学生的成绩均低于按其国家收入而预期设定的水平。与本地区和经合组织平均值相比,学生们每个学科科目的成绩继续滞后2至3年。大约50%的学生低于基本熟练水平,这使得他们在接触第二十一世纪技能时,几乎属于功能性文盲,尽管他们已经完成九年的小学和高中学业。
 
在泰国,在科学和阅读学科上的成绩大幅下滑,数学成绩则略有下滑。尽管印度尼西亚在测试分数上已经取得显著提高——科学测试的成绩水平升高了约0.7个学年;在阅读方面,印度尼西亚在2000年至2015年间提高了26分(从371至397分),但其整体成绩水平仍远远落后于经合组织和本地区的平均水平。
 
成功经验
 
东亚各国的成功并非奇迹,也无秘密可言。成功归因于勤勉的付出和良好的政策。
 
正如多年前韩国所做的那样,取得好成绩的东亚各国都做好了基础工作,它们从对基础教育进行精明投资入手,之后推广有效的早期阅读课程。对私营部门服务或资金和公共资金的经济有效使用,能够帮助弥补所存在的差距。在建立和完善基础教育体系的同时,东亚各国对于高等教育采用创新性的资金扶持计划,例如按收入比例还款型学生贷款计划,即学生可通过其未来收入筹集学费和其他费用。得益于学校同行业和用人单位建立的紧密联系,面向小学毕业后学生的技能培训项目得以顺利实施。此外,上述各国也很好地利用了发展机构的贷款。
 
越南的成功得益于下述几个因素。该国除了重视国家预算对教育的投入之外,家长也会通过经常帮助学校或向学校募捐等方式,更多地参与到孩子的学习生活当中。教师的教学工作得到更多的监督,与其他发展中国家相比,越南更加重视学生的成绩。学生也因此更加专注和认真对待其学业。他们较少担心数学,并且对将来如何应用数学知识更有信心。
 
越南也做好了基础工作。该国已从对学校和教师素质的早期投资中获益。学校的最低质量标准以及学科知识、技能和行为标准得以实施。教师均具有很高的职业水平。该国强调识字和识数能力标准化评估的重要性。这些举措所获得的优势很早就开始显现:研究表明,五岁以下越南儿童的表现已略优于其他发展中国家的同龄儿童。
 
应当先从这一地区吸取成功经验。我们将通过区域研究和在3月在印度尼西亚召开的会议上总结上述经验。
 
请可通过Twitter@hpatrinos关注Harry Anthony Patrinos

by · Friday, 10 February 2017 · China, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam