Indonesia

Poverty in paradise: The dark side of Indonesia’s new tourism hope

A tableau of white sandy beaches, colourful coral reefs and turquoise water, the islands of Raja Ampat are set to be Indonesia’s next tourism hotspot …

by · Friday, 22 September 2017 · Indonesia, Thailand

Poverty in paradise: The dark side of Indonesia’s new tourism hope

RAJA AMPAT, Indonesia – A tableau of white sandy beaches, colorful coral reefs and turquoise water, the islands of Raja Ampat are set to be …

by · Friday, 22 September 2017 · Indonesia, Philippines

Poverty in paradise: The dark side of Indonesia’s new tourism hope

RAJA AMPAT, Indonesia – A tableau of white sandy beaches, colorful coral reefs and turquoise water, the islands of Raja Ampat are set to be …

by · Friday, 22 September 2017 · Indonesia, Philippines

Poverty in paradise: The dark side of Indonesia’s new tourism hope

RAJA AMPAT, Indonesia – A tableau of white sandy beaches, colorful coral reefs and turquoise water, the islands of Raja Ampat are set to be …

by · Friday, 22 September 2017 · Indonesia, Philippines

Poverty in paradise: The dark side of Indonesia’s new tourism hope

RAJA AMPAT, Indonesia – A tableau of white sandy beaches, colorful coral reefs and turquoise water, the islands of Raja Ampat are set to be …

by · Friday, 22 September 2017 · Indonesia, Philippines

Poverty in paradise: The dark side of Indonesia’s new tourism hope

A tableau of white sandy beaches, colorful coral reefs and turquoise water, the islands of Raja Ampat are set to be Indonesia’s next tourism hotspot …

by · Friday, 22 September 2017 · Indonesia, Philippines

Indonesia president: Spread wealth, protect diversity

But it has dramatic extremes of wealth and poverty, grappling with both childhood stunting from malnutrition and a mounting health care burden from …

by · Wednesday, 16 August 2017 · Indonesia, Philippines

Indonesia President: Spread Wealth, Protect Diversity

But it has dramatic extremes of wealth and poverty, grappling with both childhood stunting from malnutrition and a mounting health care burden from …

by · Wednesday, 16 August 2017 · Indonesia, Thailand
Education user committee improves teacher service performance in a remote Indonesian village

Education user committee improves teacher service performance in a remote Indonesian village

Chair and members of the Education User Committee announce the teachers’ performance scores in a meeting attended by the representatives from the Ministry of Education and Culture, the sub-district education department, the village government staff, the school staff, and community members.

Alfiana Pamut was standing in front of an overwhelmingly male audience at SD Inpres Golo Popa, an elementary school in Manggarai Timur District in East Nusa Tenggara, one of the poorest regions in Indonesia. The young woman, who heads the school’s Education User Committee, with a loud and clear voice, read the scores given to each teacher in the school for their service performance that month.
 
As I sat at the back of the room, observing how the meeting went, I could not help being impressed by the scene.
 
In a different context, citizens making demands on teachers to provide better services may be a normalcy. But SD Inpres Golo Popa is located in Compang Necak, a very remote village some three hours of grueling drive from the nearest town. In isolated villages like Compang Necak, teachers tend to be very well respected. But precisely because of the remoteness of the areas, supervisions over the teachers by government officials are at a bare minimum, if any. A UNICEF study in 2012 revealed that the lack of supervision resulted in higher teacher absenteeism. An unannounced survey by the Analytical and Capacity Development Partnership in 2014 found that one in five teachers was absent from remote schools, or double the national rate.
 
At SD Inpres Golo Popa, a World Bank unannounced survey in 2016 found that one in seven teachers was absent from the school. None of the 51 students tested (of 61 registered students) achieved their grade-level competencies in either Indonesian language or mathematics. Such was the disheartening situation before KIAT Guru pilot started.
 
The pilot is a collaboration between the Ministry of Education and Culture, the National Team for Acceleration of Poverty Reduction and the District Government of Manggarai Timur. Implemented by Yayasan BaKTI, with technical support from the World Bank and funding from the Government of Australia, the pilot aims to improve teacher presence and service performance.
 
KIAT Guru empowers communities to hold teachers accountable by agreeing to prioritize five to eight bottom-up service indicators to improve student learning environment. In some pilot schools, the community empowerment is combined with pay for performance as part of a teacher’s income, based either on the Education User Committee’s verification of teacher’s presence, or the Committee’s score on teacher’s service performance. Comprised of nine members – six parents of students and three community leaders – the Education User Committee members are elected by the parents and community members. The Committee in Golo Popa comprise of five women.
 
In SD Inpres Golo Popa, the teacher service performance scores evaluated by the Committee determined the amount of remote area allowance that teachers receive. For example, as the principal received a score of 91, she would receive 91 percent of her remote area allowance for the respective month. Since the total amount of the remote area allowance is the same as their base salary, the Education User Committee’s score is a high-stake for teachers.
 
After Alfiana completed reading the service performance scores for all seven school teachers, the principal and parents were asked to respond. The school principal Ester Esem questioned her score. She had carried out her job well by supervising teaching and learning activities and teacher presence every day.
 
Confidently, Alfiana responded that the Education User Committee had checked the document, conducted observations, and interviewed students before scoring. The Committee found that Ester’s supervision was not optimal. In the teacher presence form, two teachers marked themselves as being present, although they were supervising tests at other schools that day.  
 
When I asked the Committee members during lunch break on how they could be so brave, they said it was the responsibility of their heart. They had to be fair to teachers, but also be accountable to the wider community. In a separate talk, Ester, the school principal, confided that the Education User Committee had done a good job in holding teachers accountable. As a female principal, she said, male teachers would not listen to her. But now she has all the Committee members conducting the monitoring on her behalf.
 

At the end of the meeting, Alfiana hands over the Service Performance Scoring Form to the school principal and signs the minutes of meeting.

While what I witnessed in Golo Popa may be one of the best-case scenarios, it is still very encouraging to see that after only three months of community facilitation, the Education User Committee could already hold the principal and teachers accountable to the service indicators that they had agreed upon. It may take longer for other communities to achieve a similar level of social accountability, but Golo Popa shows that it is definitely possible. The KIAT Guru pilot is currently implemented in 203 very remote primary schools in five districts. Results from the pilot aims to provide the Ministry of Education and Culture with policy recommendations.

by · Tuesday, 15 August 2017 · Australia, Indonesia, Oman
Kelompok Pengguna Layanan tingkatkan kinerja layanan guru di desa terpencil di NTT

Kelompok Pengguna Layanan tingkatkan kinerja layanan guru di desa terpencil di NTT

Ketua dan anggota Kelompok Pengguna Layanan mengumumkan nilai kinerja guru dalam pertemuan yang dihadiri perwakilan dari Kementerian Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan, dinas pendidikan tingkat kabupaten, perangkat desa dan pihak sekolah, serta anggota masyarakat.

Alfiana Pamut berdiri di hadapan sekelompok orang yang didominasi oleh laki-laki di SD Inpres Golo Popa, di Kabupaten Manggarai Timur, Nusa Tenggara Timur, salah satu daerah tertinggal di Indonesia. Perempuan muda yang juga menjadi ketua Kelompok Pengguna Layanan tersebut membacakan nilai kinerja layanan tiap guru selama satu bulan di sekolah ini dengan suara lantang dan jelas.

 

Mengikuti jalannya pertemuan tersebut dari tempat duduk di belakang ruang kelas, saya amat terkesan dengan apa yang saya saksikan.

 

Dalam konteks yang berbeda, adalah sesuatu yang lumrah bagi warga untuk menuntut guru memberikan layanan pendidikan yang lebih baik. Namun SD Inpres Golo Popa terletak di Desa Compang Necak, yang berjarak tiga jam berkendara dari kota terdekat melalui jalan berbatu, menanjak dan berkelok-kelok. Di desa terpencil seperti Compang Necak, masyarakat cenderung menghormati para guru. Namun lokasi sekolah yang amat jauh membuat pemerintah kesulitan mengawasi guru. Studi yang dilakukan UNICEF pada 2012 menunjukkan bahwa minimnya pengawasan terhadap sekolah berakibat pada tingginya tingkat mangkir para guru. Sebuah survei yang tidak diumumkan yang dilakukan oleh Kemitraan Pendidikan Australia dengan Indonesia pada 2014 memperlihatkan bahwa satu dari lima guru mangkir dari sekolah-sekolah terpencil, atau dua kali lipat dari angka di tingkat nasional.

 

Sementara itu, survei yang dilakukan World Bank pada akhir 2016 di SD Inpres Golo Popa menunjukkan bahwa satu dari tujuh guru mangkir dari sekolah. Tidak satu pun dari 51 murid yang dievaluasi (dari 61 murid terdaftar) mencapai standar kompetensi yang ditentukan untuk Bahasa Indonesia dan Matematika. Inilah gambaran atas apa yang terjadi sebelum program rintisan KIAT Guru dimulai.

 

Program ini merupakan kolaborasi antara Kementerian Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan (Kemdikbud), Tim Nasional Percepatan Penanggulangan Kemiskinan (TNP2K) dan Pemerintah Kabupaten Manggarai Timur. Diimplementasikan oleh Yayasan BaKTI, dengan dukungan World Bank dan pendanaan dari Pemerintah Australia, proyek percontohan ini bertujuan untuk meningkatkan kehadiran serta kinerja layanan guru.

 

KIAT Guru memberdayakan masyarakat untuk meningkatkan akuntabilitas guru dengan menyepakati lima hingga delapan indikator layanan untuk meningkatkan lingkungan belajar yang menyenangkan bagi anak. Di beberapa sekolah rintisan, pemberdayaan masyarakat ini dikaitkan dengan pembayaran tunjangan guru, yang jumlahnya dihitung berdasarkan verifikasi Kelompok Pengguna Layanan atas kehadiran guru atau penilaian atas kinerja layanan guru. Terdiri dari sembilan anggota – enam orang tua murid dan tiga tokoh masyarakat – anggota kelompok dipilih oleh para orangtua dan anggota masyarakat. Ada lima anggota perempuan dalam kelompok di Golo Popa.

 

Di SD Inpres Golo Popa, kinerja layanan guru yang dinilai oleh Kelompok Pengguna Layanan akan menentukan jumlah tunjungan daerah terpencil yang diterima guru. Kepala sekolah yang mendapat skor 91, misalnya, akan menerima 91 persen dari tunjangan daerah terpencil bulanan yang dialokasikan. Dengan jumlah tunjangan daerah terpencil sama besarnya dengan gaji pokok, skor yang diterima guru menjadi amat penting.

 

Setelah Alfiana selesai membaca skor kinerja layanan ketujuh guru di SD tersebut, tiba giliran kepala sekolah dan orangtua memberikan tanggapan. Sang kepala sekolah, Ester Esem, mempertanyakan skornya. Ia merasa telah melakukan tugasnya dengan baik dalam mengecek kegiatan belajar mengajar dan kehadiran guru setiap hari.

 

Dengan percaya diri, Alfiana menjawab bahwa Kelompok Pengguna Layanan telah mengecek dokumen, melakukan pengamatan dan mewawancarai beberapa murid sebelum menentukan nilai. Kelompok tersebut menemukan bahwa pengecekan yang dilakukan Ester tidak optimal. Di daftar hadir ada dua guru yang menandatangani buku absen, namun pada hari tersebut, mereka mengawasi ujian di sekolah lain.

 

Saat istirahat makan siang, saya mencari kesempatan untuk mengobrol dengan anggota Kelompok Pengguna Layanan dan bertanya bagaimana mereka bisa begitu berani. Mereka mengatakan bahwa itu adalah tanggung jawab dari hati. Mereka harus memberikan penilaian yang adil terhadap guru, namun juga harus bertanggung jawab kepada masyarakat. Dalam obrolan lainnya, sang kepala sekolah, Ester, bercerita bahwa Kelompok Pengguna Layanan telah bekerja sangat baik menjaga akuntabilitas guru. Ia menyebutkan bahwa guru-guru laki-laki terkadang tidak mendengarkannya karena Ia seorang perempuan. Namun kini ada anggota kelompok yang membantunya melakukan pengawasan. 

Di akhir pertemuan, Alfiana memberikan laporan Penilaian Kinerja Guru kepada kepala sekolah dan menandatangani berita acara.

Apa yang saya saksikan di Golo Popa mungkin salah satu contoh terbaik, namun tetap sangat membesarkan hati melihat bahwa hanya dalam tiga bulan setelah proses pendampingan masyarakat berjalan, Kelompok Pengguna Layanan telah mampu menjaga akuntabilitas kepala sekolah dan guru terhadap indikator layanan yang disepakati bersama. Mungkin kelompok masyarakat lain akan membutuhkan waktu yang lebih lama untuk sampai pada kondisi akuntabilitas sosial yang serupa, namun Golo Popa menunjukkan bahwa hal ini sangat mungkin terjadi. Proyek percontohan KIAT Guru saat ini diimplementasikan di 203 sekolah dasar di area tertinggal di lima kabupaten. Hasil proyek ini akan dimasukkan ke dalam rekomendasi kebijakan untuk Kementerian Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan.

by · Tuesday, 15 August 2017 · Australia, Indonesia, Iran